The ELM (Elaboration Likelihood Model) is a popular way of looking at how customers are persuaded by type of appeal. The ELM appeals are a great way of looking at how you might want to make your advertising media choices. But first a quick re-cap of the ELM persuasion model.
The ELM of persuasion by Petty and Caccioppo (1986) suggests that folks get persuaded by one of two routes in the mind - the Central Route where you need to cognitively process the information in the ad and you think logically. The Peripheral Route is the emotional processing of information in the Ad.
If you are an advertiser, then you need to consider how your customer is likely to process the advertising message that you want to give them. The Media by Appeal graphic with this post is a simple way of looking at what media is best for your message:
- Television is great for reaching large audiences. If you advertise on TV, your Ads must tap something emotional in your audience. If it does, then your Ad might become viral on YouTube. The "non-thinking" nature of television is one reason that it is called the "idiot box." Somewhat unfair, because TV is very effective depending on your advertiosing objectives and budget.
- Radio is great when you want to reach people somewhat emotionally. The person is driving to work and has the radio on. If your ad is memorable you can expect the person to go back to home or office and check you out on the Internet.
- Outdoor is effective when you want to build awareness of your brand and have a simple message. When someone is driving fast and seeing your outdoor billboard- you do not want to explain how to make cake from your cake mix in six steps!
- Leaflets/Direct Mail can get more detailed. When people are looking for a pizza coupon, they might go through the leaflet you sent out last week. Direct Mail can get really heavy on logic and reading-understanding. Just think of all the material in a credit card mail offer.
- Magazines are wonderful for very narrow targeting and niche marketing. Someone who subscribes to a cooking magazine is really interested in reading your cake recipe details in a paid ad.
- Internet Search advertising is relatively recent and fits into the ELM appeal thinking fairly neatly in the logical appeal category. When you put out a Google AdWords search ad ( or any other pay per click- PPC ad on Yahoo or Bing) it shows when someone is actually searching the Internet. You pay for the click and you know that the person came to your website. A bit like searching for the pizza coupon in the pile of leaflets- only much easier.
- Internet Banner is more about emotional appeal first. You see the banner for cake mix in a baking web forum and you are taken to the cake mix website where a great offer is made. It is also possible for the banner ad to follow a prior interested customer through other websites as a sort of reminder. Technology allows the ad to follow you around including on Facebook as you traverse the web.
All media have strengths and the advertiser needs to figure out what might work best for their target market. Remember the customer journey can be over 9 contact points before someone buys. Contact StratoServe.